Thursday, October 22, 2020

Over 31% of Texans Have Already Voted

Through the first 8 days of early voting in Texas, 4,626,042 Texans have voted early and another 698,990 mail-in ballots have been received. That makes 5,325,032 votes that have been cast in this election -- about 31.41% of the state's registered voters. There are 10 more days of early voting.

Trump Will End His Term As He Began It - WHINING!

Voters Have More Favorable Opinion Of Biden And Democrats


The charts above reflect the results of the latest Economist / YouGov Poll -- done between October 18th and 20th of a national sample of 1,500 registered voters, with a 2.9 point margin of error.

It shows that registered voters have a 6 point higher opinion of Joe Biden than Donald Trump (51% to 45%). When it comes to their views of the political parties, the difference is even bigger. Voters have a 10 point higher opinion of the Democratic Party than the Republican Party (49% to 39%).

A Trump White House Halloween

 Political Cartoon is by Dan Wasserman in The Boston Globe.

Half Of Trump Voters Believe The QAnon Conspiracy Is True

The definition of QAnon is from The New York Times. The chart is from the recent Yahoo News / YouGov Poll -- done between October 16th and 18th of a national sample of 1,583 registered voters, with a 4 point margin of error.

The poll shows that half of Donald Trump's voters believe the QAnon conspiracy theory is true, and 33% are not sure if it's true or not. Only 17% know that it is not true.

This is why the Republican Party is in trouble. Too many of it's members are not connected to reality. 


 Political Cartoon is by Dave Granlund at

Raise The Pay For Farmworkers (The Lowest Paid Workers In U.S.)

The capitalists controlling our food system would like for you to believe that giving farmworkers (the lowest paid workers in this country) a significant raise in pay, would make the cost of food prohibitive. That is just not true. Even if customers bore the entire cost of that raise for farmworkers, the rise in the cost of food would be minimal.

Here's part of what the Economic Policy Institute says about the cost of raising farmworker pay:

According to studies published by the University of California, Davis, farm labor costs are about a third of farm revenue for fresh fruits and vegetables, meaning that farmworker wages and benefits for fresh fruits and vegetables cost the average household $57 per year (0.33 x $173 = $57). (However, in reality, farm labor costs are less than $57 per year per household because over half of the fresh fruits and one-third of fresh vegetables purchased in the United States are imported.)

To illustrate, that means that farm owners and farmworkers together receive only about one-third of retail spending on fruits and vegetables even though most, and in some cases all, of the work it takes to prepare fresh fruits and vegetables for retail sale takes place on farms (the exact share of the price farmers receive varies slightly by crop). For example, strawberries are picked directly into the containers in which they are sold, and iceberg lettuce is wrapped in the field. Consumers who pay $3 for a pound of strawberries are paying about $1 to the farmer, who pays one-third of that amount to farmworkers, 33 cents. For one pound of iceberg lettuce, which costs about $1.20 on average, farmers receive 40 cents and farmworkers get 13 of those 40 cents.

So, what would it cost to raise the wages of farmworkers? One of the few big wage increases for farmworkers occurred after the Bracero guestworker program ended in 1964. Under the rules of the program, Mexican Braceros were guaranteed a minimum wage of $1.40 an hour at a time when U.S. farmworkers were not covered by the minimum wage. Some farmworkers who picked table grapes were paid $1.40 an hour while working alongside Braceros in 1964, and then were offered $1.25 in 1965, prompting a strike. César Chávez became the leader of the strike and won a 40% wage increase in the first United Farm Workers table grape contract in 1966, raising grape workers’ wages to $1.75 an hour.

What would happen if there were a similar 40% wage increase today and the entire wage increase were passed on to consumers? The average hourly earnings of U.S. field and livestock workers were $14 an hour in 2019; a 40% increase would raise their wages to $19.60 an hour.

For a typical household or consumer unit, a 40% increase in farm labor costs translates into a 4% increase in the retail price of fresh fruits and vegetables (0.30 farm share of retail prices x 0.33 farm labor share of farm revenue = 10%; if farm labor costs rise 40%, retail spending rises 4%). If average farmworker earnings rose by 40%, and the increase were passed on entirely to consumers, average spending on fresh fruits and vegetables for a typical household would rise by $25 per year (4% of $615 = $24.60).

Many farm labor analysts consider a typical year of work for seasonal farmworkers to be about 1,000 hours. A 40% wage increase for seasonal farmworkers would raise their average earnings from $14,000 for 1,000 hours of work to $19,600. Many farmworkers have children at home, so for them, going from earning $14,000 to $19,600 per year would mean going from earning about half of the federal poverty line for a family of four ($25,750 in 2019) to earning about three-fourths of the poverty line. For a farmworker employed year-round for 2,000 hours, earnings would increase from $28,000 per year to $39,200, allowing them to earn far above the poverty line.

Raising wages for farmworkers by 40% could improve the quality of life for farmworkers without significantly increasing household spending on fruits and vegetables. If there were productivity improvements as farmers responded to higher labor costs, households could pay even less than the additional $25 per year for fresh fruits and vegetables.

If average farmworker earnings were doubled (rose by 100%) through increased spending on fresh fruits and vegetables, a typical household would see costs rise by $61.50 per year (10% of $615). That extra $61.50 per year would increase the wages of seasonal farmworkers to $28,000 for 1,000 hours of work, taking them above the poverty line for a family of four. 

Turd Immunity

 Political Cartoon is by Bill Bramhall in the New York Daily News.

Trump's Campaign Lawyers Prefer Biden Be Elected


Wednesday, October 21, 2020

Former RNC Chairman Endorses Joe Biden


Newest Yahoo News / YouGov Poll Has Biden By 11-Points


The chart above reflects the results of the new Yahoo News / YouGov Poll -- done between October 16th and 18th of a national sample of 1,583 registered voters, with a 4 point margin of error.

Red Wave

Political Cartoon is by Martin Turner at

Presidential Race Has Been Remarkably Stable For Months

The charts above are from a new Morning Consult Poll. The survey was done between October 16th and 18th of a national sample of 14,994 likely voters, and has a margin of error of only 1 point.

The top chart shows Biden with a 9 point lead (52% to 43%). Note that since June the race has been very stable.

The second chart shows the demographic breakdown of voters.

The third chart shows the favorability ratings for Biden and Trump.

America First Or Me First?

 Political Cartoon is by Kevin Siers in The Charlotte Observer.

National Polling Average For Presidential Election

From The Washington Post.

Hiding The Monster

Political Cartoon is by Adam Zyglis in The Buffalo News.

USA Today Endorses Joe Biden For President

USA Today has never endorsed a presidential candidate in the past, but they are doing so this year. They are endorsing Joe Biden. Here is just a small part of what they had to say.

Four years ago, the Editorial Board — an ideologically and demographically diverse group of journalists that is separate from the news staff and operates by consensus — broke with tradition and took sides in the presidential race for the first time since USA TODAY was founded in 1982. We urged readers not to vote for Donald Trump, calling the Republican nominee unfit for office because he lacked the “temperament, knowledge, steadiness and honesty that America needs from its presidents.” We stopped short, however, of an outright endorsement of Hillary Clinton, the Democratic nominee. This year, the Editorial Board unanimously supports the election of Joe Biden, who offers a shaken nation a harbor of calm and competence. . . .

It's no secret that the Editorial Board disagrees with Trump not just on his approach to the coronavirus but also on fundamental issues, from health careand climate change to immigration and trade. Policy differences, however, are not the reason behind our first-ever presidential endorsement. Diverse views, even ones we think are wrongheaded, are a staple of American politics and something to celebrate.

If this were a choice between two capable major party nominees who happened to have opposing ideas, we wouldn’t choose sides. Different voters have different concerns. But this is not a normal election, and these are not normal times. This year, character, competence and credibility are on the ballot. Given Trump’s refusal to guarantee a peaceful transfer of power if he loses, so, too, is the future of America's democracy.

For nearly four decades, the Editorial Board has stood for certain core values: truth, accountability, civility in public discourse, opposition to racism, common-ground solutions to the nation’s problems, and steadfast support for First Amendment rights. These aren’t partisan issues, or at least they shouldn’t be.

Donald Trump has trampled each of these principles, making more than 20,000 false or misleading statements, ducking responsibility for his actions, spewing streams of invective at his critics, trafficking in racial fearmongering, governing more as the leader of the red states than of the United States, and relentlessly attacking the free press.

Everything about Biden’s nearly half-century political career suggests he would do a far better job of respecting these values. “We need to revive the spirit of bipartisanship in this country, the spirit of being able to work with one another,” the Democratic nominee said in a recent speech in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Biden is a worthy antidote to Trump’s unbounded narcissism and chronic chaos. Having surmounted heartbreaking personal loss  — his first wife and year-old daughter died in a car crash, and his son Beau died of brain cancer — Biden exudes decency and empathy. Ask yourself: Can you imagine Joe Biden denigrating servicemembers as losers? Cozying up to autocrats abroad? Shaking down a foreign leader for dirt on a political opponent? . . .

Biden is an experienced hand with working-class roots who understands the American dream. He knows the levers of power and how to wield them. He has a history of working across the aisle on such issues as health care, racial justice and the environment. He has the knowledge and the personality to begin repairing America’s tattered reputation around the world. . . .

This extraordinary moment in the history of our nation requires an extraordinary response. With his plans, his personnel picks, his experience and his humanity, Joe Biden can help lead the United States out of this morass and into the future. Your vote can help make that happen.

Woman Voter

Political Cartoon is by Randall Enos at

It Ain't Just The Cities Anymore - COVID-19 Goes Rural



Covid-19 spread in rural America at a record-breaking pace again last week, adding 160 counties to the red-zone list and bringing the total number of rural Americans who have tested positive for the coronavirus to more than 1 million.

Nearly 70% of the nation’s 1,976 rural (nonmetropolitan) counties are now in the red zone, a term used by the White House Coronavirus Task Force to designate localities where the spread of the virus is out of control. Red-zone counties have a rate of at least 100 new infections per 100,000 in population.

Tuesday, October 20, 2020

Would Republicans Make The Same Mistake In 2024?


New PRRI Poll Has Biden With A Large Lead


The chart above reflects the results of the Public Religion Research Institute Poll. Their latest poll was done between October 9th and 12th of a national sample of 1,070 respondents, with a 4 point margin of error. It shows Biden with a 14 point lead.

They also looked at how turnout would affect the election. According to PRRI, if the turnout is the same as it was in 2016 (about 55%), then Biden would win by 11 points (55% to 44%). But if the turnout is large (say 68%), then Biden would win by 15 points (57% to 42%). If early voting is an indicator, then the turnout is going to be very large.

No Returns

Political Cartoon is by Clay Jones at

Trump's Accusations against Biden Are Nothing But LIES!


Trump can't run on his record, because everything he's tried to do was bungled (like his handling of the Coronavirus) or against the wishes of most voters (like his tax cut for the rich and corporations). And being a poor debater, he tried to bully Joe Biden -- but that did not work either

That leaves Trump with only one tool to use, and it's one he loves to use -- LIES.

PolitiFact looked at the charges against Biden that Trump loves to use. They found all of them to be false.

Here are the lies (and the truth) from PolitiFact:

Biden "will destroy your protections for pre-existing conditions"

Biden does not want to end these protections. Biden says he supports and wants to defend the Affordable Care Act, the health care law signed by President Barack Obama that established strict protections for people with pre-existing conditions. It’s Trump who wants to overturn the law, and while he has issued a largely toothless executive order affirming support for those protections, Trump has not offered a replacement that would keep them intact.

"The Biden plan would destroy Social Security"

Biden’s plans related to health care and seniors do not call for the elimination of Social Security benefits. Biden says the Social Security program is one of the nation’s "great public policy successes" and says he would try to make the program solvent and prevent cuts in benefits to American retirees.

Biden will "decimate Medicare"

Biden does not want to cut or eliminate Medicare. Biden wants to allow Americans to buy into a public option for government-backed health insurance, but plans to also keep Medicare. He says he wants to lower the Medicare eligibility age from 65 to 60 and to protect the Medicare trust fund.

"They want to … confiscate your guns"

Biden is not calling for the confiscation of all guns or for a repeal of the Second Amendment. To combat gun violence, Biden wants to ban the manufacture and sale of assault weapons and high-capacity magazines, and to regulate possession of existing assault weapons. Under a buyback program, Biden says he will give people who now have assault weapons or high-capacity magazines two options: sell the weapons to the government, or register them under the National Firearms Act. "It’s within our grasp to end our gun violence epidemic and respect the Second Amendment, which is limited," Biden’s campaign website says.

"They now want to abolish our police departments"

Biden has repeatedly said he does not want to defund the police or abolish police departments. Biden says police departments should be given resources "to implement meaningful reforms" and that federal dollars should be contingent on completion of those reforms. His campaign platform includes hiring more officers, focused on community policing.

"They want to abolish our prisons"

Biden does not want to abolish prisons. A task force made up of representatives from Biden’s team and allies of Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., met to hammer out Biden’s general-election platform. The resulting document recommended changing some aspects of jails and prisons, saying too many of them subject people to inhumane treatment. Democrats support ending the use of private prisons. But that’s not the same as getting rid of all jails and prisons.

"Abolish immigration detention. No more detention"

The Biden-Sanders task force recommended ending for-profit detention centers, but not an abolition of all immigration detention centers. The task force said the government should prioritize the use of Department of Homeland Security facilities, and that detention should be "a last resort, not the default."

Biden "is even talking about taking the wall down"

Biden has not said he would take down barriers built at the border. What he has said is that he wouldn’t build more of them. Biden says he would "direct federal resources to smart border enforcement efforts," such as cameras, sensors, large-scale X-ray machines, and fixed towers at and between ports of entry.

Biden will "abolish fracking"

Biden would block the federal government from issuing new permits for oil and gas drilling on public lands, but wants to allow existing fracking operations to continue. Fracking, formally known as hydraulic fracturing, is an oil and gas extraction technique that has helped boost domestic production over the past decade, but has also raised concerns about environmental and health impacts. About 10% of all fracking happens on federal lands.

Biden will "destroy your suburbs"

Biden is not seeking to abolish the suburbs, force rezoning or end single-family zoning. The Trump claim is an extreme interpretation of Biden’s proposal to reinstate an Obama administration requirement related to addressing discrimination in housing.

Democrats "want to shut your churches down, permanently"

Democrats are not calling for churches to be closed. Many states — including those governed by Republicans — have required people to wear face coverings in public, banned large gatherings and ordered nonessential businesses to close to control the spread of the coronavirus. Some states exempt churches from their restrictions.

Biden and Democrats want to "drive God from the public square"

Biden, a Catholic who routinely invokes his faith, has not proposed this. His campaign website says he would "empower religious organizations to provide safe places of worship and community for their members, while also reaffirming our national commitment to freedom, tolerance, and inclusivity." To address anti-Semitism and violent attacks in places of worship, Biden’s plan includes increasing security grants to religious communities, setting up a faith-based law enforcement program, and strengthening the prosecution of hate crimes.

Biden will "ban school choice, charter schools"

Biden’s education policies include support for charter schools and public school choice. For many Republican leaders, school choice is synonymous with providing vouchers to help families pay for tuition at private schools. Biden opposes using public dollars to pay for private school tuition. The Biden-Sanders task force recommended opposing for-profit and low-performing charter schools, and giving local school districts a powerful say over the use of federal funds to open new charter schools or expand existing ones.

"No windows"

Trump has falsely claimed that Biden would "mandate" net-zero carbon emissions by 2030 and that such a mandate "basically means no windows, no nothing." The task force recommended setting a goal that all new buildings achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. But the recommendation said nothing about a mandate — or windows. Also, the presence of windows in a building does not mean it can’t achieve net-zero carbon emissions.

"Cows are out"

Biden doesn’t want to get rid of cows, whose, ahem, gas emissions contribute to climate change. Trump has said that Biden would try to jam through the Green New Deal and that under the proposal, "cows are out." That's not true. For one thing, Biden has said he does not support the Green New Deal. His climate plan shares some of the broader goals of the Green New Deal, like net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, but leaves out other agenda items. For another thing, there’s no mention of cows in the proposal — only a note in a supporting document that it would be hard to ban "farting cows."

Trumpism Is Dragging The GOP Down

 Political Cartoon is by David Horsey in The Seattle Times.

Freudian Slip?


Monday, October 19, 2020

Trump's Biggest Hurdle


Nearly 23% of Registered Voters Have Voted In Texas

Five out of 18 days of early voting has been completed in Texas. So far, 3,323,360 people have voted in person and 558,019 mail-in ballots have been received. That's a total of 3,881,379 votes that have already been cast in this election -- about 22.89% of the state's registered voters.

The numbers are from the office of the Texas Secretary of State.

Almost Enough

 Political Cartoon is by Steve Sack in the Minneapolis Star-Tribune.

Average Of Recent Polls Has Biden With An 8-Point Lead

 The chart above is from the website of RealClearPolitics. It shows the most recent polls on the presidential race. The average of those polls has Biden with an 8 point lead over Trump.

"Heard" Immunity

 Political Cartoon is by Daryl Cagle at

A Mask Requirement Has Nothing To Do With "Freedom"

There are some on the right who refuse to wear a mask to help stop the coronavirus. They say it's their right to refuse to wear a mask, because a mask requirement impinges on their freedom.

They are wrong. Refusing to wear a mask doesn't mean you are free. It means you are disregarding the rights of your fellow citizens -- the right to be safe and secure.

Michael Tomasky has written an excellent op-ed for The New York Times on this subject. Here is a small part of what he wrote:

One of the key authors of the Western concept of freedom is John Stuart Mill. In “On Liberty,” he wrote that liberty (or freedom) means “doing as we like, subject to such consequences as may follow, without impediment from our fellow creatures, as long as what we do does not harm them even though they should think our conduct foolish, perverse or wrong.”

Note the clause “as long as what we do does not harm them.” He tossed that in there almost as a given — indeed, it is a given. This is a standard definition of freedom, more colloquially expressed in the adage “Your freedom to do as you please with your fist ends where my jaw begins.”

Now, conservatives revere Mill. But today, in the age of the pandemic, Mill and other conservative heroes like John Locke would be aghast at the way the American right wing bandies about the word “freedom.”

Freedom emphatically does not include the freedom to get someone else sick. It does not include the freedom to refuse to wear a mask in the grocery store, sneeze on someone in the produce section and give him the virus. That’s not freedom for the person who is sneezed upon. For that person, the first person’s “freedom” means chains — potential illness and even perhaps a death sentence. No society can function on that definition of freedom.

Joe Biden does a pretty good job of talking about this. At a recent town hall in Miami, he said: “I view wearing this mask not so much protecting me, but as a patriotic responsibility. All the tough guys say, ‘Oh, I’m not wearing a mask, I’m not afraid.’ Well, be afraid for your husband, your wife, your son, your daughter, your neighbor, your co-worker. That’s who you’re protecting having this mask on, and it should be viewed as a patriotic duty, to protect those around you.”. . .

Freedom means the freedom not to get infected by the idiot who refuses to mask up. Even John Stuart Mill would have agreed.

"Rounding The Corner"

Political Cartoon is by Dave Granlund at

Should We Forget The Damage Done By Trump's Enablers?


Sunday, October 18, 2020

Trump Whines About His Probable Loss To Biden


COVID-19 Growth In Each State In The Last Week

These numbers are from The COVID Tracking Project.

The first number for each state is the number of cases they had on 10/10/20. The second number is the number of cases on 10/17/20 (one week later).

Alabama..........164526 -- 171662
Alaska..........10428 -- 11792
Arizona..........224978 -- 230407
Arkansas..........92220 -- 98422
California.........842776 -- 864455
Colorado..........76619 -- 83230
Connecticut.........60038 -- 62830
Delaware..........21998 -- 22942
District of Columbia..........15918 -- 16334
Florida..........728921 -- 752481
Georgia..........330269 -- 339384
Hawaii..........13498 -- 14047
Idaho..........47088 -- 51704
Illinois..........319461 -- 343390
Indiana..........133411 -- 145977
Iowa..........94271 -- 101103
Kansas..........65807 -- 70855
Kentucky..........79445 -- 86797
Louisiana..........173406 -- 177726
Maine..........5696 -- 5913
Maryland..........130795 -- 135127
Massachusetts..........138340 -- 142930
Michigan..........149464 -- 161105
Minnesota..........110828 -- 121090
Mississippi..........104638 -- 110006
Missouri..........144230 -- 154928
Montana..........18117 -- 22233
Nebraska..........51144 -- 55714
Nevada..........85399 -- 89652
New Hampshire..........9092 -- 9625
New Jersey..........212877 -- 218738
New Mexico..........32241 -- 35770
New York..........473143 -- 482891
North Carolina..........229752 -- 243725
North Dakota..........26628 -- 31261
Ohio..........167458 -- 180225
Oklahoma..........98621 -- 106503
Oregon..........36935 -- 39316
Pennsylvania..........171050 -- 180943
Rhode Island..........26294 -- 27691
South Carolina..........156621 -- 163214
South Dakota..........27947 -- 32611
Tennessee..........212649 -- 226139
Texas..........790060 -- 820563
Utah..........84644 -- 93297
Vermont..........1857 -- 1926
Virginia..........157905 -- 165238
Washington..........92560 -- 96894
West Virginia..........17913 -- 19801
Wisconsin..........155602 -- 175227
Wyoming..........7455 -- 8816

Virgin Islands..........1324 -- 1329
Puerto Rico..........53364 -- 56650
Guam..........3056 -- 3617


Political Cartoon is by Mike Smith in the Las Vegas Sun.

Trump Is Waging A Campaign Of Fear And Division

Most presidents run on their record when trying to get elected to a second term. Donald Trump can't do that. He can'y do it because his first term was marred by incompetence, dishonesty, and corruption.

So, he's taking another path -- a campaign of fear and division. He's trying to scare White voters into believing that other races, religions, and ideologies are going to replace them. He's a bigot, and he's counting on Whites to be so frightened that they will accept his bigotry.

Here's part of what Roger Cohen says about Trump's campaign in The New York Times:

Donald Trump has been all about the fear of replacement, or as it’s sometimes called, “the great replacement.” His has been the stand — I am tempted to say the last stand — of whites against nonwhites.

Of America-first nationalists against migrants; of straight people against L.G.B.T.Q. people; of the gunned-up against the unarmed. Of Trump against all those he believes would replace the likes of him.

All means have been used — lies, brutality, incitement. But fear has been Trump’s main weapon. Fear, which depends on pitting one group against another, is the currency of the Trump presidency. It is therefore no surprise that the America that is about to vote is probably more fractured than at any time since the Vietnam War. . . .

America is particularly susceptible to fear today because the world has changed in unsettling ways. Power has migrated eastward to Asia. America’s recent wars have been unwon. By midcentury, non-Hispanic whites will constitute less than 50 percent of the population.

It is frightening to see an industry disappear, like coal in Kentucky. Trump understood that he could be the voice of that fear. He would build a wall to keep those brown people out!

He is an impostor. He puffs out his chest, Mussolini-style, but he is a bone-spur coward. A narrow ramp makes his limbs tremble. He is good at getting the blood up. He is good at undoing. He is not good at getting anything constructive done.

Less than 20 days.

America will decide whether to opt for the future or burrow self-destructively into some warped fantasy of the past. It will decide whether to reinvent itself again or turn mean and further inward.

As Edward R. Murrow remarked, “We cannot defend freedom abroad by deserting it at home.”

That was in 1954, at the height of McCarthyism. For Senator Joseph McCarthy, the danger to the Republic came from Communist infiltration of American life. The real danger came from his obsessions. From the purges and blacklists that branded countless Americans as un-American.

Murrow, a great journalist, stood up to McCarthy.

Donald Trump does business the McCarthy way. He deals in specters: immigrants, and Muslims, and brown people, and Black people, and L.G.B.T.Q. people.

As with McCarthy, however, the real danger comes from Trump’s obsessions, not from these imagined enemies. . . .

Is it unreasonable to see renewal in a 77-year-old man, Joe Biden? No. We live in the real world, where the perfect cannot be the enemy of the good. Indecency demands the restoration of decency. That’s ground zero of this election. The choice was starkly evident in the televised town hall events Thursday as Trump spouted wild far-right conspiracy theories while Biden had the self-deprecating honesty to say that if he lost, it could suggest he’s “a lousy candidate.” Biden is not a lousy candidate; he is a good man, a brave man. I doff my hat to any parent who survives with such dignity the loss of two of his four children.

Of McCarthy, Murrow observed: “He didn’t create this situation of fear; he merely exploited it — and rather successfully. Cassius was right. ‘The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in ourselves.’”

The fault is in ourselves. Time for Americans to look in the mirror — and realize their America is irreplaceable if it is lost.

Waiting To Vote


Political Cartoon is by Jimmy Margulies at